Application of Muscular Force

Application of Muscular Force

The mechanical action of the levers employed determines the power which the muscle must exert to perform the work. Two factors influence the amount of power which a muscle can supply to its lever: variation in the strength of the pull resulting from different degrees of stretch of the working muscles and the mechanical advantage of the lever. The position of a muscle at contraction affects the strength of the pull of the muscle. The position of greatest pull is one in which the muscle is slightly stretched.

The strength of the pull is decreased when there is no stretch on the muscle and, of course, there is no further strength in the muscle when it is completely contracted. The biceps is in the position for strongest pull when the elbow is fully extended and the biceps is stretched. The triceps is in position for the strongest contraction when the elbow is fully fixed and the triceps is stretched. When the elbow is fully extended the biceps pulls the radius and ulna against the humerus and only a small force is directed toward flexion of the joint.

With the elbow at half flexion (the lower arm at right angles to the upper arm), the force of the biceps is entirely employed in the flexion and the lever is in the position of maximal mechanical efficiency. With the elbow threequarters flexed the pull is again against the humerus and the efficiency of the pull is very low; also the biceps in this position is nearly fully contracted and possesses very little additional strength for movement of the lever. If a heavy book is placed on the palm of the hand when the arm is extended along the top of a table, it may be observed that it is difficult to lift the book from this position.

If the upper arm is raised to one-fourth flexion at the start of the lift, the lift is easier. The lift is easiest with the elbow flexed so that the upper arm is at a right angle to the lower arm, With the elbow fully flexed it is obviously impossible to lift the load father. The combination of these two factors, the advantage of the muscle stretch and the mechanical advantage of the pull from a right angle, allows a great percentage of the entire force to be exerted over a wide range of movement.

The range of movement in lifting heavy load is dependent upon the amount of the load and the degree of flexion at the start of the contraction of the muscles which are performing the lift. Loads which are near maximum can be lifted only short distances because of the reduced power when the joint is near full flexion or extension. To move a heavy load the greatest distance, start in the position at which the joint is flexed just to the point at which it is barely possible to move the weight.

Strength and Appearance in Fitness

Strength and Appearance in Fitness

A girl wants to be beautiful; a boy desires to be strong, with a nice-looking physique. These are natural desires-they are ranked at the top of the list as highly valued possessions by youth themselves. Providing that no pathologic condition is involved, a strong physique can be obtained in a comparatively short period of time. Masculine bodies can be made strong and flexible in a matter of months; Atlas does it. Girls’ appearances can be improved both in body form and in basic movements of standing, walking, and sitting; modeling schools do it.

Through the cooperation of the physical education and the home economics departments, public schools usually have professional personnel trained for development and maintenance of beautiful physiques for both boys and girls. Guidance in grooming and nutrition coupled with proper body building programs, as determined from testing results, can be one of the most worthwhile endeavors in our entire education regimen. We must take advantage of this know-how if physical education as a profession is to achieve its greatest potential.

Strength as basic to good performance in skills

Strength is basic to performance in activities. By measuring we can determine the status of our pupils and hence construct a more effective program to meet pupil needs. By first assaying muscular development, it can be determined whether pupils are ready for instruction in sports skills. A pupil will not be able to hold the tennis racket as instructed if he has not sufficient strength. How can a pupil learn to pole vault if he cannot hold his own weight? Moreover, lack of sufficient strength results in rapid muscular fatigue, which limits the amount of practice time available for learning skills.

Proper muscular development helps to prevent muscular imbalances that may result in compensating movements when a child is attempting to learn new skills. We have all seen injured people favoring their good (strong) sides. A similar compensating mechanism may result if a youngster does not have sufficient strength to hold the tennis racket as instructed. In order to hold the racket he will compensate by calling into play more muscles than would properly be necessary. These compensating mechanisms may result in imbalances which, if not corrected, become progressively more difficult to rectify.

How Often Should You Eat?

How Often Should You Eat

As long as caloric requirements are met and the diet is balanced, there is nothing terribly wrong with three meals per day. On the other hand, mare frequent small meals (4-6 per day) may reduce feelings of hunger and prevent binge eating. Another argument favoring more frequent meals is the fact that food itself stimulates basal metabolism in most individuals.

A more sustained metabolism can be achieved by eating more frequent meals, while remaining within caloric requirements. Whether or not you need food supplements if you eat a balanced diet is a source of much, controversy. It is not safe not to eat supplements. You could have an inconsistency in your diet, you could have a nutrition deficiency that you didn’t even notice. This is true for everybody. We need protein supplements, we need carbohydrate sources like my Carbo Energizer, we need B-complex vitamins so we can metabolize the other stuff.

Keep the food groups in mind, understand the basic principles, and it’s not hard to eat healthy! You don’t need to walk around with a calculator, or to keep referring to a book. The longer you eat what’s good for you, the better your body will respond. It will begin to tell you when you need more and when you’ve eaten enough.

That doesn’t mean we’re opposed to reading books. Commonly Used Portions by Bowes and Church is a fine reference that will help you figure calories, fat, protein and carbohydrate amounts in different portions of different foods. Fad diets are about as useful nutritionally as fad haircuts or fad shoes or fad anything else. One diet that’s no fad is the Pritikin diet. The Pritikin Institute set it up along with very sound nutritional guidelines, and it’s a good regimen for those who want to learn healthy eating habits. However, we believe the protein content of this diet is too low.

Weight Loss and Fast Food

Weight Loss and Fast Food

I love the country from which I’m from, but we have to many fast food joints and restaurants, no one eats home cooked meals anymore. It makes it so hard to make good healthy meals for yourself when you pass by a million places in a row on one street and you can smell the food!

I think it’s difficult to avoid temptation in any country. The trick is to remember why you are cutting out the junk food and lowering your calories. Eating healthier food will make you feel and look better.

I would recommend entering a few of your favourite fast food meals into your diary to see how many calories they come to. This alone is a great deterrent.

I think it is better to eat real food. For breakfast most mornings, I have a half cup of oatmeal (150 calories). The oatmeal that I eat is in the old tube (100% whole grain). Stay away from those flavored packets that contain all kinds of sugars and stuff.

The 100% whole grain oatmeal is a great way to get in some bulk, that fills the stomach and it is also a good mix of protein and carbs to start off the morning. For an added bonus, you get 4 grams of fiber in that serving too. It is almost a perfect food.

I add a packet of splenda and some cinnamon, mix it up and eat it. One day a week, I’ll add Sugar Free low calorie syrup instead of the splenda to give me some variety in taste.

Those drinks (Ensure, Slimfast, etc.) contain a lot of junk that you really don’t need. If you want a vitamin, then take a vitamin without the extra fats and calories.

Home cooked meals are cheaper, lower in calories and better for you in general. However, also remember that if you get a little extra exercise and avoid temptation you may find that you have a few calories left over at the end of the week to treat yourself to something a little more naughty.

Sometimes you just need a greasy burger. And McDonalds has the best fries ever. I’m like you, if you’re going to McDonalds, what’s the point of having something you have all the time at home anyway? No way I’m getting a fast food salad! Now, if I had to eat at McDonalds on a regular basis, I’d make better choices. But once in a while, you just need that fat, grease, cholesterol, etc!! It’s so yummy! And allowing myself that stuff once in a while is what keeps me sane and able to stay on the fitness trail the rest of the time(mostly!)

Pregnancy and Weight Gain

Pregnancy and Weight Gain

Having a baby is a wonderful event that should not be hindered too much by worrying about weight gain, although it is a good idea to keep it in check and not gain too many extra fat pounds. Some weight gain during pregnancy is, of course, perfectly normal. But there are things you can do to keep from gaining too much.

Obviously it’s important to eat enough, but being pregnant is not a free ticket to eat too much. I think portion control should still be exercised along with those pre-natal vitamin things your supposed to take.

The women I have know that got in really good shape after having a baby were in really good shape to begin with and also didn’t gain very much during pregnancy. There is the facility within your goals to ‘maintain current weight’, which will give you a calorie quota to ‘keep yourself as you are’. My advice is to see your doctor, and ask his/her advice on calorie intake throughout pregnancy.

Nutrition is critical to the developing baby. Certain nutrients are responsible for each system. For example, folic acid aids in the healthy development of the neurological system and protein directly effects brain growth. That is why women are advised to begin taking pre-natal vitamins before they even try to get pregnant. If you are depriving yourself of necessary nutrition – your developing baby will suffer.

This does not mean you should be a glutton or eat chocolate ice cream every night (that was my downfall). But it does mean being smart about what you eat. Your Obstetrician can give you recommendations for healthy caloric intake and it might be wise to meet for a pre-pregnancy consultation.

Losing Weight After Pregnancy

Make sure you complete your food diary in full and learn from it. Look at where your calories are coming from, learn about your eating habits. This knowledge will give you the power to make changes. You can have treats – work everything into your daily calorie quota. Try to be as active as possible – all exercise/activity burns off additional calories and allows for any indulgence.

Try not to repeat the situation of being sick after eating. Input the food into your diary – you know where you are. You can lose weight in a healthy and sustainable manner. Enjoy your baby and just get back to the basics.

The History of the Low Carbohydrate Diet

The History of the Low Carbohydrate Diet

The low carbohydrate diet represents a revolutionary principle of weight control in the sense that anything which attacks an entrenched regime is revolutionary. And the rule of the calorie count, in modern dietetic thinking, is certainly entrenched. So much so, that the most difficult thing you must do in order to benefit from the low carbohydrate diet is to put yourself through a certain amount of mental readjustment before you even begin to adjust your menu.

To borrow a concept from George Orwell, you will be required to do some nutritional Newthink. Dethrone the calorie. A considerable amount of research now indicates that it is not the number of calories you take in, but the kind, that affects the formation of body fat. You may be eating not too many calories, but more carbohydrate calories than your body can burn up.

Paradoxically, we can go back a hundred years and find an instance when this ‘new’ principle was put into successful operation. The results were spectacular then, but the basis for them was, by our present scientific evaluations, incompletely analysed and misunderstood. In consequence, the principle was sidetracked out of the mainstream of weight-control experimentation, and the calorie became king-or tyrant.

The episode was recorded for us by an otherwise uneminent Victorian, one William Banting. if you are addicted to the reading of Victorian novels, his name may ring a bell; somewhere you will have encountered young ladies who couldn’t have a second bun for tea because they were ‘banting’. Your eye may have slid over this as merely another example of that odd way the British have with slang: if the girl couldn’t have seconds, she was obviously dieting, and what had ‘banting’ to do with dieting?

Had you been around at the time, you would have known. William Banting was a prosperous London coffin-maker who constructed final resting places for many notables of his time, the Duke of Wellington among them. It seems probable that Mr. Banting’s apprentices did the actual woodwork involved, for his measurements make it difficult to see how he could have approached close enough to a workbench to be of much use. He stood less than five and a half feet tan and weighed something around fifteen stone.

In his Letter on Corpulence, which he wrote in 1864 to acquaint the public with his dramatic and almost miraculous story, he makes the touching observation that he could not tie his own shoelaces or come down a flight of steps facing front. We can infer that he must have had trouble leading any kind of normal life.

Calorie myths we should all stop believing

Calorie myths we should all stop believing

Many people think weight loss is simply about cutting calories. They believe that to lose weight, you must reduce calories (either eat less or burn more), to gain weight you must add calories, and to maintain weight you keep calories constant. To these folks, calories in, calories out is the only thing that matters. They usually oppose the Primal Blueprint because they assume that we “deny” the importance of calories in weight loss.

Well, they’re wrong. I don’t deny the importance of calories. Calories absolutely count. And if someone has lost weight, they have necessarily expended more calories than they consumed. That said, there are some major misconceptions about calories, body weight, fat loss, and health. These calorie myths are often rooted in truth but presented in black-or-white terms that are useless at best, harmful at worst, and do little to help the average person lose body fat.

Let’s dig right in.

Weight gain is caused by eating more calories than you expend.

Calorie fetishists love pointing out that weight gain requires overeating. That is, everyone who gains weight necessarily ate more calories than they expended. Okay. We’ve established that everyone agrees on this. But it’s just restating the issue. It doesn’t tell us anything new or useful. It’s merely descriptive, not explanatory.

To show you what I mean, let’s do the same thing with other phenomena.

— Why was Martin Luther King Jr. assassinated? Because someone pointed a sniper rifle at him and fired it.

— Why did Usain Bolt win the 100 m final in the Beijing Olympics? Because he crossed the finish line first.

— Why is the restaurant so crowded? Because more people entered than left.

These are technically true, but they ignore the ultimate causes. In King’s case, they fail to discuss racism, the civil rights movement, or the motivation of the shooter. They don’t mention Bolt’s training, genetics, or his childhood. They don’t discuss why the restaurant has attracted so many customers — new menu, Valentine’s Day, graduation? They simply restate the original statement using different words. They just describe what happened.

I’m interested in what truly causes us to eat more than we expend and/or expend less than we eat. I don’t care to merely describe weight gain because that doesn’t help anyone.

A calorie is a calorie.

Look. I loved Carl Sagan. Like everyone else, I got chills when he’d wax poetic about our place in the universe and our shared origins as “star-stuff.” But just because steak comes from the same star-stuff as a baked potato, isocaloric amounts of each do not have identical metabolic rates in our bodies when consumed.

We even have a study that examined this. For two weeks, participants either supplemented their diets with isocaloric amounts of candy (mostly sugar) or roasted peanuts (mostly fat and protein). This was added to their regular diet. After two weeks, researchers found that body weight, waist circumference, LDL, and ApoB (a rough measure of LDL particle number) were highest in the candy group, indicating increased fat mass and worsening metabolic health. In the peanut group, basal metabolic rate shot up and neither body weight nor waist size saw any significant increases.

Does this invalidate the relevance of energy balance? Of course not. Since the peanut group’s metabolic rate increased, they expended more calories in response to added calories, thus remaining in balance. But it does elegantly and definitively invalidate the simplistic notion that all calories, especially added calories, are treated equally by the body.

Weight loss and fat loss are the same thing.

People don’t want to lose weight. “Losing weight” is common parlance, but we really want to lose body fat and retain, or gain, muscle. And studies indicate that the macronutrient composition can differentially affect whether the weight lost is fat. It’s not just about total calories.

Take the 2004 study from Volek that placed overweight men and women on one of two diets: a very low-carb ketogenic diet or a low-fat diet. The low-carb group ate more calories but lost more weight and more body fat, especially dangerous abdominal fat.

Or the study from 1989 that placed healthy adult men on high-carb or high-fat diets. Even though the high-carb group lost slightly more body weight, the high-fat group lost slightly more body fat and retained more lean mass.

Just “weight” doesn’t tell us much. What kind of weight? Are we losing/gaining fat or muscle, bone, sinew, organ? Are we increasing the robustness of our colons and the number of bacterial residents (who, though small, carry weight and occupy space) from added prebiotic fiber intake? These factors matter for health. I’d argue that they’re the only factors that actually matter when losing or gaining weight because they offer insight into our health and body composition.

Exercise helps you lose weight only by burning calories.

Most people think of exercise as a way to mechanically combust calories. And that’s true, to a point. Exercise does “burn” calories, and this is a factor in weight loss. But it does lots of other cool things to our physiology that can assist with improving body composition, too.

Compared to something high intensity like burpees or something aerobic like running a 10k, lifting free weights doesn’t burn many calories when you’re lifting them. But it does improve insulin sensitivity, which reduces the amount of insulin we secrete for a given amount of carbohydrate and increases our ability to burn body fat. It increases muscle mass, which uses calories (protein). It strengthens connective tissue, which also uses calories. It even preserves metabolic rate during weight loss and boosts it for up to 72 hours post-workout. All these changes affect the fate of the calories we ingest.

If calories burnt were the most important factor, then the best way to lose weight would be to hammer it out with as much endurance exercise as you can withstand because that’s the most calorie intensive. But studies show that combination training — aerobic and resistance training — leads to greater reductions in body fat than either modality alone.

Even aerobic exercise isn’t just about mechanically burning calories. It also preferentially targets the reward regions of our brains, reducing the allure and spontaneously lowering our intake of junk food.

Counting calories allows us to accurately monitor food intake.

You’d think that, wouldn’t you? Most foods at the grocery store have labels. Even restaurants are beginning to emblazon menus with calorie counts for each item. As humans, we implicitly trust the printed word. It looks so official and authoritative, and it spells out with great specificity exactly how many calories we’re about to eat.

Except studies show that’s not the case. Whether it’s the nutritional information provided by restaurants, the calorie counts on supposedly “low-calorie” foods, or the nutritional labels on packaged foods, calorie counts are rarely accurate. Food manufacturers can even underreport calories by 20% and pass inspection by the FDA.

Maybe that’s why people have so much trouble sticking to their allotted number of calories. If only reality would bend to the will of the label!

You may roll your eyes at some of these ideas because they’re so preposterous, but consider where you’re coming from, where you’re reading this. This is how the general public – and, often, the experts and physicians advising their patients and writing policy — approaches the question of fat loss. Sure, not everyone immersed in conventional wisdom holds every one of these myths to be true.

And when they’re actually faced with the statement, few will claim that a calorie of steak is metabolically identical to a calorie of white sugar or that weight loss is the same as fat loss. But when calories in, calories out is the first line of attack against excess body fat, these are the kind of myths that become entrenched.

Calories: The Beginning Of The End

Calories: The Beginning Of The End

Science, however, was interested. In 1944 Dr. Blake F. Donaldson conducted a famous experiment with obese patients at New York Hospital, reducing them on diets high in proteins and fats. Dr. Donaldson’s book, Strong Medicine, was another sign post along the road on which Banting had embarked eighty years earlier. But the average dieter went on counting calories, all kinds together, oblivious that more and more research was piling up to suggest that with his low calorie carrot salad, high in carbohydrates, he was doing his measurements more harm than if he had satisfied his hunger with a nice slice of ham-higher in total calories, but zero in carbohydrates.

A few years afterwards the E.I. du Pont company headquarters in Wilmington, Delaware, undertook a weight-control programme involving a group of its executives who had been unsuccessful with low calorie diets. Under the direction of Dr. Albert W. Pennington and Dr. George H. Gehrmann, director of du Pont’s medical division, these overweight individuals were allowed all the protein and fat they wanted.

Total caloric intake was unrestricted, in some cases going up to 3000 or more calories per day-but carbohydrate was withheld. The results were spectacular. The weight losses varied from person to person, as did the time required for each to reach his goal. But, averaged out, each dieter lost 22 lb. in slightly more than three months.

This time public imagination was captured. Holiday magazine ran a series of articles discussing the du Pont project, and for a time the so-called Holiday Diet became a household word. In principle, this was a controlled carbohydrate diet, but in practice the high-protein, high-fat regimen offered so many calories per day that it was still impossible for most people to believe it would work. The medical directors of the project knew, and had proved, that when carbohydrate was not present the body would burn fat instead.

However, in the years that followed, so much significant research has been recorded by so many authoritative investigators that it is no longer possible to dismiss the low carbohydrate diet as interesting but freakish. At Middlesex Hospital in London, a team headed by Professor Alan Kekwick and biochemist Dr. G. L. S. Pawan undertook an intensive study of diet involving both obese and non-obese subjects, the results of which have had enormous impact on weight-control theory.

They found that obese patients would lose weight even on comparatively high calorie diets so long as the calories consisted chiefly of protein and fat, and the carbohydrates were kept to a minimum. They also concluded that on a fat and protein diet, low in carbohydrate, the body would derive its nutritional requirements from the food which it was given.

This is a skimming of the research bloodlines behind the low carbohydrate diet. The serious student with time to invest and the desire to know more can find a mountain of relevant material at his nearest library. The serious dieter needs only to start cutting carbohydrates; he will lose weight.

Drink plenty of water when you feel hungry

Drink plenty of water when you feel hungry

For many people drinking a lot of water is a useful tool to help them eat fewer calories or get more exercise. If this is not true for you then you will see no benefit from drinking more water.
I would suggest that when you feel hungry that you try having a drink. Your body can not tell the difference between feelings for hunger and thirst.

If you’re feeling more hungry than usual, try to fill up on healthy, low calorie things like fruit and vegetables. I think a lot of people concentrate on drinking water because it is a lot easier than eating less or exercising. Unless you are drinking gallons a day it will certainly not hurt anything. Water is one of the few things you can indulge in as much as you want without any negative effect.

Water is a lot like air. Both are absolutely vital for your body to function properly. Your body assumes both are readily obtainable and does not hoard either or try to get you to excessively consume when they are available to make up for times when they will be scarce. If you need more air you breathe harder, if you need more water you get thirsty. Just because air is vital does not mean you need to constantly try to breathe more air. Just because water is vital does not mean you will see benefits by drinking massive quantities of water.

Drink plenty of water when you feel hungry

I think drinking lots of water helps people lose fat if, and only if:

1 – They are drinking water instead of regular soda, juice, beer, milk or some other high calorie beverage. This can make a huge difference, particularly for heavy soda drinkers that can regularly drink 600+ Calories worth of soda a day.

2 – Drinking water makes them feel full and eat less at meals.

3 – They can substitute drinking water for having a snack when they are hungry.

Many people find at least one of these items to be true for them. But a lot of us do not and drinking water will not help.

It is normal for most people you size to lose the first 10 or 15 pounds much quicker than the rest of the weight. If this happens to you do not become discouraged. If you are losing weight at 1 or 2 pounds a week you are doing great.

It is the total amount of exercise you get that matters most. If you tire easily you might try something less strenuous like walking (which is how I get most of my exercise) and do it for a longer period of time. Eventually your stamina will build up. I started with a .7 mile walk every night a few years ago.

Now I average about 200 miles a month. This takes a lot time though. Being single I have the time but if you are busy shorter periods of more intense exercise will be just as beneficial and take much less time. From what I have read short periods of more intense exercise will be better for your heart too but picking an exercise program you can stick with forever is more important than anything else.

Discover Simple Health and Fitness Secrets

Discover Simple Health and Fitness Secrets

If you are absorbed in your health, exercise plays a big role. Many humans belittle the accent of concrete action in affiliation to all-embracing able-bodied being. Studies accept apparent over and over afresh how important it absolutely is. In fact, it can abate the accident of developing action aggressive diseases.

For one thing, accepting fit and physically alive relieves stress, which is a killer. If you attending at the lifestyles of the majority of the citizenry and their levels of stress, accumulated with the assorted diseases inflicting a acceptable part, and which are on the rise, you will see that added humans are accepting ailing than in the past. For example, in the past, if the majority of the aliment earners were men, it was men that were fatigued and added decumbent to affection attacks, etc. Now, with anybody on the workforce, these statistics accept afflicted and women are ascent in affiliation to such diseases.

With that said, if these humans were exercising, again their accident of developing such diseases would decrease. Another archetype would be with diabetics. For those who ache from this condition, as able-bodied as pre-diabetes, exercise is one of the recommendations to accumulate claret amoroso levels at bay. Of course, this is in affiliation with convalescent eating. The botheration of ascent numbers in diseases and abiding altitude is that we are all somewhat behindhand as to the aliment we eat, defective acutely in capital nutrients and vitamins. The Phenibut is a Russian nootropic which assist you to keep healthy and fit.

However, in aggregate with a diet affluent in vitamins from fruits and vegetables and basically one that is counterbalanced with the four aliment groups, as able-bodied as accommodating in some blazon of concrete activity, you can reside a best and convalescent life. Concrete action doesn’t accept to be something you loathe. In fact, it could be walking, running, or cycling. But it doesn’t end there. Perhaps you can accompany a aggregation and play soccer or some added aggregation action that you can accept lots of fun with.

Regular exercise puts you in a added absolute affection and helps allay depression. You abatement comatose added calmly and are beneath acceptable to deathwatch up in the night as continued as you leave at atomic 3 hours amid exercise and bedtime. For those amidst you who ache from insomnia, try practicing yoga accompanying with deep-breathing techniques. Give it 3 or 4 months and you should see a apparent aberration in your beddy-bye pattern. If the anticipation of working-out or walking in the morning afore plan seems impossible, accomplish the accomplishment of traveling to bed beforehand if you can. Traveling to bed an hour beforehand can absolutely accomplish a aberration to the way you feel the afterward day.

Regular exercise can advice added bloom exercise issues such as stress, all-overs and low self-esteem and with commendations to the bloom benefits, able-bodied it goes after adage that it tones and strengthens muscles, boosts activity levels, strengthens your affection and lowers claret pressure.

There are range of supplements and medical products available online for best health and fitness. Like as Phenibut is a Russian nootropic which helps everyone to keep healthy and fit. These have no side effects. But try to go for these after the doctor’s prescription. So what are you waiting for? Go fit and fine with best healthy supplements.