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Physiological Elements of Fitness

Physiological Elements of Fitness

Cardiac output, pulmonary ventilation, oxygen consumption, carbon dioxide output and heart rate during and after exercise are so closely interrelated in an individual performing a standard bout of work that fairly accurate estimates of all other factors can be made from the measured value or a single factor. Post-exercise heart rate is frequently used because of the ease and convenience of its measurement.

The exercises employed in physical fitness tests place the systems of the body (particularly the cardiovascular system) under stress. Running on a treadmill, pedalling a stationary bicycle and stepping up onto a stool are frequently used because they involve large muscle groups in fairly heavy work but do not demand unusual skills.

Performance is measured by the maximal duration of the effort or by the maximal amount of work accomplished. Physiological effect is estimated from the magnitude of the heart rate changes during exercise and from the rapidity of return of the heart rate to normal following the exercise.

There is a voluminous literature on physical fitness tests and testing. The reader is referred to an excellent review and to articles dealing with applications to industry, to physical education and to medicine.

A test of physical fitness for strenuous exertion has been used successfully to detect alterations in physical condition in subjects on reduced calorie intake and with restricted vitamin B complex in the diet. A modification of the test has been used to evaluate the results of programs of physical training.

The test may be administered periodically to determine whether tim the optimal amount of training is being given, to segregate students into classes so that work will not be too hard for some and too easy for others, and to determine when a student has improved enough to be shifted to another class in which he will receive optimal training. Further modifications of the fitness test have been used in programs of rehabilitation and convalescence and in a study of neuro-circulatory asthenia.

Related Link: Health, Fitness and Training

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Hit the Road, Girls

Hit the Road, Girls

Sportsmen who include running in their fitness program may wonder what longterm effect the pounding will have on their weight-bearing joints. Isn’t there a danger that the wear and tear on the joints could ultimately result in cartilage damage, arthritis and other problems?

Actually, the latest research indicates just the opposite: Runners develop healthier, denser bones than nonrunners and appear to have a lower incidence of wear-and-tear arthritis and osteoarthritis in the knees and hips.

The Stanford Arthritis Center in Stanford, California, conducted a study recently comparing 41 veteran runners and 41 nonrunners. The people in both groups ranged in age from 50-72. The purpose of the study was to determine whether long-term running produces a healthy heart but a worn-out skeletal system.

Hit the Road, Girls

Researchers found that the runners displayed no sign of cartilage loss in the joints and actually had slightly more joint space than nonrunners. Which is desirable, since decreased joint space is perhaps the most notable feature of osteoarthritis. Also, both male and female runners had 40% greater bone density than nonrunners. Which is desirable again, since loss of bone density is a sign of bone weakening.

At least two other studies have produced similar results, proving that our knees and hips not only stand up to the stress of running but seem to almost thrive on it!

Source: Muscle & Fitness Magazine

Related Link: Beauty, Health, Fitness & Family

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Tennis: Keep Your Eye on the Ball

Tennis: Keep Your Eye on the Ball

We are now ready to take up the specific fundamentals of the game, and the first definite one in tennis is the foundation of all games played with a moving object: Keep your eye on the ball!

I am certain that in every hour I work with a beginner in the game, I repeat this instruction at least thirty times in some form. When I say, “Keep your eye on the ball,” I mean watch that ball from the time you first start to toss it to serve until the end of the point, and never look at anything else.

Naturally, the pupil decides this is exaggeration, that I am overdoing it. Let me assure you I am not. The pupil always wants to know how he can tell where to hit a ball if he doesn’t look over to see. He doesn’t need to watch the court. He took a look at it when he went out on it. It is stationary. It isn’t going to move off or change its dimensions. The lines are permanent. He knows that the net is in the middle and stands three feet high in the centre and three feet, six inches, at the posts, and will not change height during play. The lines, backstops, and sidestops are also fixed in position. They, too, will remain there.

Tennis: Keep Your Eye on the Ball

Usually you can convince the pupil he need not watch the court or net quite easily, but his next hurdle is far more dillicult. “How about that guy I am playing?” he blurts out.

“How can I tell where he is if I don’t watch him?” A reasonable query, certainly, but the answers to it are easy and should satisfy anyone.

First of all you must remember that you are not trying to hit your opponent but to miss him. You are attempting to put the ball where he isn’t-not where he is.

“Ah, but I have to see him to know where he is!” cries the pupil. Not at all. If he is a good tennis player, you know where he is without having to see him, because a good tennis player will be in correct position. Correct position for a back-court player is about on the backline of the court and near the middle of it. If you are facing a net player, his correct position would be about eight feet back on his side of the net, and at a point that would be about two feet toward the centre of the court from a straight line drawn parallel to the sidelines from where you hit the ball down through his court.

So, if he is a good tennis player you know where he is without having to see him, and if he isn’t a good tennis player it doesn’t make much difference. where he is! After all, the thing you are attempting to hit is a moving ball, which requires the eye to change focus as that ball moves. Obviously, if the eye once Ioses sight of the ball, it is almost impossible to sight it again clearly in time to hit it cleanly.

Related Link: All About Tennis

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Vanessa Hudgens Career Milestones

Vanessa Hudgens Career Milestones

Born: Vanessa Anne Hudgens
Date of Birth: 14 December 1988
Birth Place: Salinas, California, USA
Height: 5′ 1″ (1,55 m)

Vanessa Hudgens was born in Salinas, California. Her family moved to San Diego whilst she was still a toddler. She has a younger sister, Stella Hudgens, who is also an actress. Her mother, Gina (Guangco), an officer worker, is from the Philippines. Her father, Gregory Hudgens, a firefighter, has Irish and Native American ancestry.

Vanessa was interested in acting and singing at a young age, inspired by her grandparents who were musicians. At the age of 8, she started appearing in musical theatre. She briefly attended Orange County High School of the Arts. She began auditioning and was successfully cast in a TV commercial. This prompted her family to move to Los Angeles. She started homeschooling so she missed out on the high school experience, until she landed her breakthrough role in High School Musical (2006).

In 2003, Hudgens played a minor role in the independent drama film Thirteen, where she plays Noel, a friend of a lead character (Tracy, played by Evan Rachel Wood). The film was critically successful, receiving generally favorable reviews, and its receipts surpassed its $4 million budget. Hudgens subsequently landed a role in the 2004 science fiction-adventure film Thunderbirds as Tintin. Unfortunately, the film was commercially and critically unsuccessful, and received heavy criticism through the Internet prior to its release.

Vanessa Hudgens Career Milestones

In late 2005 Hudgens appeared in television shows such as Quintuplets, Still Standing, The Brothers García, Drake & Josh, and The Suite Life of Zack & Cody.

In late 2005 she landed her breakout role of shy and meek Gabriella Montez in High School Musical, opposite to Zac Efron. Her performance received numerous nominations and awards. With the success of the film, the BBC predicted that Hudgens would be a “household name” in the US.

In 2007, Hudgens reprised her role as Gabriella Montez in the sequel of High School Musical, High School Musical 2. Virginia Heffernan of TV Review described Hudgens in her performance in the movie as “matte” as she “glows like a proper ingénue”.

Hudgens reprised her role as Gabriella Montez in High School Musical 3: Senior Year. Her performance in the film made her win favorite movie actress in the 2009 Kids Choice Awards.

Vanessa Hudgens Career Milestones

Post-High School Musical, Hudgens remarked that she will focus in her acting and films, while “taking a break” from her music career as a solo artist. She played a supporting role in a musical comedy Bandslam, which was released theatrically on August 14, 2009. Hudgens plays “Sa5m”, a 15-year-old awkward freshman with untapped talents.

Although Bandslam was commercially unsuccessful, Hudgens’s performance received praise from critics. David Waddington of the North Wales Pioneer noted that Hudgens “outshines the rest of the cast, failing to fit in with the outcast narrative and making the inevitable climactic ending all the more expected,” and Philip French of The Guardian compared her acting to Thandie Newton and Dorothy Parker.

Hudgens performed a musical number with other artists during the 81st Academy Awards. Hudgens later provided voice roles in an episode of Robot Chicken. Hudgens’ involvement in Beastly, a film based on Alex Flinn’s novel of the same name, was announced in early 2009. She played one of the main characters in the film as Linda Taylor, described by Hudgens as the “beauty” of the story but not the stereotypical beauty everyone thinks of. Along with Beastly co-star, Alex Pettyfer, Hudgens was recognized as ShoWest stars of Tomorrow. Hudgens was later cast in an action film directed by Zack Snyder, Sucker Punch, playing Blondie, an institutionalized girl in an asylum, which was released in March 2011.

After so many years, Hudgens returned to theater productions wherein she starred in the musical Rent as Mimi. The stage production ran from August 6–8, 2010 at the Hollywood Bowl. Her involvement in the production drew negative comments, but director Neil Patrick Harris defended his decision with casting Hudgens by saying, “Vanessa [Hudgens] is awesome. She’s a friend. I asked her to come in and sing to make sure she had the chops for it. And she was very committed and seemed great.”

In October 2010, it was announced that Hudgens will be joining the sequel to the 2008 film Journey to the Center of the Earth alongside Dwayne Johnson and Josh Hutcherson, playing Hutcherson’s love interest. In April 2011, it was reported that she would star in an indie film, Gimme Shelter with Brendan Fraser, written and directed by Ron Krauss.

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New York Career Guidance

New York Career Guidance

Career guidance can be a critical intervention for residents of large cities like New York where the network of educational, training, and employing institutions is too complex and differentiated to be readily understood. Without informed help during the decision-making process, many city dwellers find it difficult to plan courses of action that will enable them to make the most of their career options.

As New Yorkers attempt to negotiate the interlocking educational, training, and employment structures, the mediation of guidance counselors may ease their progress into and through the labor market and help them to surmount institutional barriers that restrict their range of choice. Since career decisions are made by both youths and adults, an effective guidance system must aim to serve people of all ages.

A person’s career options are affected not only by his personal attributes, but also, to a significant degree, by the availability of family and community resources which can be devoted to the development of his potential and to the pursuit of his goals. “Guidance specialists share with most Americans, the belief that a man is largely in control of his own fate. However, guidance has paid relatively little attention to the ways in which the economic and social status of some families restricts the opportunities for education and work available to their children.”

In New York, for example, at one extreme we find people with sufficient resources to select and realize any of a large number of career possibilities. At the other extreme are those whose circumstances drastically restrict their opportunities. In the first instance, while guidance may provide a measure of reinforcement to the decision-making process, the determinants for successful outcomes preexist. In the latter instance, socioeconomic barriers to the realization of choice severely limit the potential contribution of guidance to effective decision making.

Most New York residents fall between these two extremes. Few are so well situated that they never require or seek formal help in decision making. On the other hand, few are so unalterably disadvantaged that they cannot derive some benefit from guidance, especially if it is combined with supporting services. Guidance cannot produce major social transformations, but skillful intervention can contribute to decisions that may improve an individual’s prospects.Certain aspects of the New York labor market which bear upon the provision of guidance services in the city are set forth below. Many of these are discussed in other chapters in this volume.

Related Link: New York New York Website

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Protest Kiss in Vancouver

Protest Kiss in Vancouver

The picture taken by Canadian photographer Richard Lam became a global sensation – appearing in the media, shared on Facebook and tweeted around the world – and looked set to take its place as one of the world’s most iconic kiss photographs.

“How’s that for making love, not war,” astonished dad Brett Jones declared on his Facebook page, announcing that his son, Scott, was the Romeo depicted in the picture.

But others wondered if it was a fake, and the photographer himself had doubts about what the picture really showed. A second shot emerged showing more people around the couple and adding to the mystery.

A witness, identifying himself as William, wrote to the Vancouver Sun to give his take. He said he was on top of a carpark looking down on the place where the picture was taken. “What happened was the police line rushed the crowd and this couple trying to stay together couldn’t react in time and were run over my two riot police officers.

“The girl who was knocked over landed head first on the pavement with her boyfriend landing partially on top of her. She was in visible pain, crying, but the two officers gave them a parting shove and moved on. Bystanders went to go make sure she was OK. I understand that the frontline police have to control the crowd but it is a bit ridiculous that they couldn’t have other officers or paramedics behind the line to help anyone who is hurt.”

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Muhammad Ali remains a legend at 70

Muhammad Ali remains a legend at 70

The towering figure of the champ has come to mean different things to different people.

Muhammad Ali will be 70 on Tuesday, but he remains, as singer Bob Dylan crooned in his classic 1974 hit, forever young. The former heavyweight champion is still one of the most revered figures on Earth, inspiring passionate feelings more than 30 years after his final bout, more than 50 years since he won an Olympic gold medal.

His voice, once so resonant, so vibrant, is largely muted now, silenced by the effects of Parkinson’s disease. His days are spent mostly in a chair, his once-dazzling smile just a memory.

The hands that were so blazingly fast, the feet which were so nimble, now betray him. He moves slowly, the tremors making it difficult for him to perform simple acts.

And yet, he remains a hero to many, still an inspirational icon despite his physical decline.

“When I think of him, I think of the verse from scripture, from Genesis, which said, ‘There were giants in the land,’ ” said former heavyweight champion George Foreman, who last week turned 63. “In the Sixties, we had giants in the land, but most of them are gone. The Kennedy brothers, they passed away; Martin Luther King … There is no proof now that there were giants in the land, because they are all dead. Muhammad Ali is the proof that once there were giants in the land.”

Ali means different things to different people, though he’s a towering figure to nearly all.

[Photos: Muhammad Ali through the years]

Author Thomas Hauser, who wrote Ali’s 1992 biography, “Muhammad Ali: His Life and Times,” had long been fascinated by Ali. After working out a deal with Ali to secure his full cooperation on the project, Hauser spent many hours with Ali and his wife while researching the book.

Veteran trainer Dick Sadler told Hauser a story of the time an 18-year-old Ali, full of energy, spent most of a long train ride singing the hit ’60s song by Chubby Checker, “The Twist.”

“I rode with [Cassius] Clay from the West Coast down to Texas, where Archie [Moore] had this fight against Buddy Thurman,” Hauser quoted Sadler in his book. “We went by train and it was a pretty wild ride. First, the kid would be standing, shouting out of the carriage, ‘I am the greatest. I am the greatest.’ He’d shout this at the passing cars and sheeps and fields and stuff. After a while, he started singing this number by Chubby Checker about ‘The Twist.’

“He didn’t know the words. He just kept on singing and singing, ‘Come on, baby. Let’s do the twist. Come on, baby. Let’s do the twist. Come on, baby. Let’s do the twist.’ It got to me. It was driving me crazy, to tell you the truth. I said, ‘Jesus, son. You’ve been twisting all across California and Arizona.’ By the time we got to New Mexico, I told him, ‘Look: Sing the Charleston or the Bugaloo. Any damn thing, but get off the Twist.’ Seven hundred miles of twisting, twisting and ‘I am the greatest.’ It drove me crazy.”

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Amanda Seyfried – Letters to Juliet Double Sided Poster

Amanda Seyfried - Letters to Juliet Double Sided Poster

Love finds when you least expect it.

When a young American (Amanda Seyfried) travels to the city of Verona, home of the star-crossed lover Juliet Capulet of Romeo and Juliet fame, she joins a group of volunteers who respond to letters to Juliet seeking advice about love. After answering one letter dated 1951, she inspires its author (Vanessa Redgrave) to travel to Italy in search of her long-lost love and sets off a chain of events that will bring a love into both their lives unlike anything they ever imagined.

The film is based on the compilation of missives that lovelorn people all over the world have written to storied star-crossed lover Juliet Capulet. The letters find their way to Verona, Italy. Book explains who are the volunteers who’ve been answering the missives for 70 years.

A tale of encountering new sparks and rekindling old flames. When Sophie (Amanda Seyfried), a young American, travels to Verona, Italy — the romantic city where Romeo first met Juliet — she meets a group of volunteers who respond to letters written to Juliet seeking romantic advice. Sophie finds and answers a letter that has been lost for 50 years, and is stunned when its author Claire (Vanessa Redgrave) arrives in Italy with her handsome but overprotective grandson (Christopher Egan) to find the fiance she left decades before. Fascinated by Claire’s quest, Sophie joins them on an adventure through the beautiful hills of Tuscany searching for Claire’s long lost Lorenzo. The journey will change their lives forever, as they discover it’s never too late to find true love.

Letters to Juliet

Directed by: Gary Winick
Starring: Amanda Seyfried, Marcia DeBonis, Vanessa Redgrave, Gael Garcia Bernal, Franco Nero, Luisa Ranieri, Marina Massironi
Screenplay by: Jose Rivera, Tim Sullivan
Production Design by: Stuart Wurtzel
Cinematography by: Marco Pontecorvo
Film Editing by: Bill Pankow
Costume Design by: Nicoletta Ercole
Set Decoration by: Alessandra Querzola
Music by: Andrea Guerra
MPAA Rating: PG for brief rude behavior, some language and incidental smoking.
Studio: Summit Entertainment
Release Date: May 14, 2010

Related Link: Read the Full Production Notes for Letters to Juliet

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Capri: Surprisingly pretty and peaceful

Capri: Surprisingly pretty and peaceful

The permanent residents of Capri have the same uncanny ability as the Balinese for going about their business oblivious to the tourist hordes around them. Capri’s tourist numbers are even more extraordinary than Bali’s. Although its area is barely four square miles and its population a mere 12,500, Capri plays host to two million visitors a year.

Most are the dreaded day-trippers from Naples and Sorrento-pendolari, the Capresi call them, in description of their incessant to-and-fro motion-who arrive clutching a packed lunch, spend nothing, leave their rubbish, and depart at teatime. During the middle of the day, Capri is best enjoyed by disappearing to the island’s furthermost comers, which can be surprisingly pretty and peaceful. But the long, balmy summer evenings, after the pendolarihave left, are what for me makes Capri a favorite island. This is when the famous Piazzetta, the social hub of Capri town, comes into its own. Tiny and intimate, fringed by animated cafes, it is the perfect place for relaxing and people-watching.

Capri: Surprisingly pretty and peaceful

An often-noticed thing about watching people in Capri is that everyone looks highly pleased with life, especially the Capresi themselves. James Money, the island’s social historian, as always has the explanation: “Making money out of the visitors is the dominant activity, and this is done by the islanders with characteristic Italian ingenuity and skill. Because this makes them happy, most of them look happy. A glum face is rarely to be seen.”

Down from the Piazzetta, the terrace of the Grand Hotel Quisisana is another prime spot for an elegant cocktail. Since 1982, Capri’s most splendid hotel has been in the ownership of the Morganos, an old Capresi family of hoteliers. I got to talking to the Quisisana’s immaculately dressed general manager, Dr. Gianfranco Morgano. Aged forty-one, he had just decided to abandon his career as a cardiologist to run the family flagship full-time.

The Quisisana, he reminded me, had originally been built as a sanatorium (its name means, roughly, “Get well here”), so it was appropriate that his first act had been to equip it with a gleaming new fitness center. If you are planning to have a heart attack-and some do when they get the bill-the Quisisana seems a pretty good place to be.

Elsewhere, the Morganos are extending their dynastic rule over Capri’s hotels. The Scalinatella, the island’s second-most highly regarded, is now run by Enrico Morgano, and a new hotel, Casa Morgano, is run by Nicolino Morgano-both brothers of Gianfranco. Needless to say, all look very happy indeed.

Hotels in Capri

Bussola di Hermes Hotel Capri, Anacapri
Regina Cristina Hotel Capri, City
Hotel San Michele Capri, Anacapri
La Floridiana Hotel Capri, Piazzetta
La Bougainville Hotel Anacapri, Anacapri
La Vega Hotel Capri Island, Anacapri
Bristol Hotel Capri, Marina Grande
Relais Maresca Hotel Capri Island, Marina Grande
La Residenza Hotel Capri, Piazzetta
Il Girasole Hotel Capri, Anacapri
Casa Caprile Hotel Anacapri, Anacapri

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River Thames Along the Strand in London

River Thames Along the Strand in London

Tha City being taken as the heart of London, there are two main arteries by which its blood is put in circulation. One is Holborn, prolonged by Oxford Street and the Uxbridge Road, so as to make almost a straight line through the metropolis, continued eastward from Aldgate along the great Whitechapel highway, in all a distance of some ten miles for a bee that had spare time to measure it from Bow Bridge to Hammersmith. The other, beside the curving bank of the river, has a shorter stretch of a mile or so to the central ganglion where it branches into several veins; yet its former course may be roughly followed by Pall Mall and Piccadilly, along the Parks and through Kensington High Street on to Kew Bridge.

If any thoroughfare is to rank as chief street of all London, it is the Strand, till the other day choked by double tides of business and pleasure, but now opened out more roomily, and its channel seconded by the broad Thames Embankment, on to which a fleet of tramcars has at last broken way. The still raw cut of Kingsway is also drawing traffic into a new current But, as we saunter towards Charing Cross together, we shall follow the Strand as our main line, with peeps of exploration on either side. Its name may at least serve us as a text for considering certain aspects of London life, old and new. If a more fanciful title were wanted for this chapter, one might call it “All the World’s London.”

Beyond Temple Bar, the offices of business merge into a quarter chiefly noted for houses of entertainment. One must not count the Courts of Justice under a head that would seem a mockery to anxious suitors, not to speak of nervous witnesses and impatient jurymen. Yet here are often enacted thrilling spectacles to draw as eager crowds for admission as do any of the Thespian temples neighbouring this modern shrine of Themis, which some aver to be dedicated rather to Æolus, though all its draughts do not clear it of what has been described as “an amalgamated effluvium, a reek of stuff gowns, dog’s-eared papers, mouldy parchment, horsehair wigs, imperfectly washed spectators, police constables and witnesses, with a bracing whiff of ammonia from the wood pavement in the Strand outside.”

What one can say without fear of contempt of court, is that the Strand and its side streets are much given up to theatres, music-halls, restaurants, and hostelries of all kinds, making this the part of London most familiar to strangers, and perhaps to some Londoners. In the depths of Transatlantic backwoods, I once foregathered with a countryman holding a commission in the “Lost Legion”; and his first question of home was, how fared the Alhambra or some such rendezvous of pleasure-seekers. Had St. Paul’s or Exeter Hall been his focus of regard, he might not have come to play the “remittance man” so far away.

In the Strand itself it was my chance to meet a young American seeking direction to Furnival’s Inn, where he desired to lodge because Dickens lived in that “hotel.” Again, I have known another New Englander ready to quarter himself upon the “House” of a celebrated Briton, because he took this title to imply an hotel, as it did in Boston. The Dickens enthusiast was not so far out, since at that time a lodging for strangers was contained within Furnival’s Inn, now rebuilt as an Insurance Office by a Company so prudential in its dealings as to have become one of the great landlords of London.

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