Category: Science World

Parallel Universes: Worlds within worlds

Parallel Universes: Worlds within worlds

The simplest multiverse is a consequence of the infinite size of our own Universe.

We do not actually know if the Universe is infinite, but we cannot rule it out. If it is, then it must be divided into a patchwork of regions that cannot see one another.

This is simply because the regions are too far apart for light to have crossed the distance. Our Universe is only 13.8 billion years old, so any regions further than 13.8 billion light years apart are utterly cut off.

To all intents and purposes, these regions are separate universes. But they will not stay that way: eventually light will cross the divide and the universes will merge.

If our Universe really does contain an infinite number of “island universes” like ours, with matter and stars and planets, there must be worlds identical to Earth somewhere out there.

It may sound incredibly unlikely that atoms should come together by chance into an exact replica of Earth, or a replica that is exact except for the colour of your socks. But in a genuine infinity of worlds, even that strange place must exist. In fact, it must exist countless times.

If so, then somewhere almost unimaginably far off, a being identical to me is typing out these words, and wondering if his editor is going to insist on radical revisions.

By the same logic, rather farther away there is an entire observable universe identical to ours. This distance can be estimated at about 10 to the power 10 to the power 118 metres. It is possible that this is not the case at all.

Maybe the Universe is not infinite. Or even if it is, maybe all the matter is concentrated in our corner of it, in which case most of the other universes could be empty. But there is no obvious reason why that should be, and no sign so far that matter gets sparser the farther away we look.

Next Page: The inflationary multiverse

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Parallel Universes: Why they might be real

Parallel Universes: Why they might be real

The idea of parallel universes may seem bizarre, but physics has found all sorts of reasons why they should exist.

Is our Universe one of many?

The idea of parallel universes, once consigned to science fiction, is now becoming respectable among scientists – at least, among physicists, who have a tendency to push ideas to the limits of what is conceivable.

In fact there are almost too many other potential universes. Physicists have proposed several candidate forms of “multiverse”, each made possible by a different aspect of the laws of physics.

The trouble is, virtually by definition we probably cannot ever visit these other universes to confirm that they exist. So the question is, can we devise other ways to test for the existence of entire universes that we cannot see or touch?

In at least some of these alternative universes, it has been suggested, we have doppelgängers living lives much like – perhaps almost identical to – our own.

That idea tickles our ego and awakens our fantasies, which is doubtless why the multiverse theories, however far-out they seem, enjoy so much popularity. We have embraced alternative universes in works of fiction ranging from Philip K. Dick’s The Man in the High Castle to movies like Sliding Doors.

Indeed, there is nothing new about the idea of a multiverse, as philosopher of religion Mary-Jane Rubenstein explains in her 2014 book Worlds Without End.

In the mid-16th century, Copernicus argued that the Earth is not the centre of the Universe. Several decades later, Galileo’s telescope showed him stars beyond measure: a glimpse of the vastness of the cosmos.

So at the end of the 16th century, the Italian philosopher Giordano Bruno speculated that the Universe might be infinite, populated by an infinite number of inhabited worlds.

The idea of a Universe containing many solar systems became commonplace in the 18th Century.

By the early 20th Century, the Irish physicist Edmund Fournier d’Albe was even suggesting that there might be an infinite regression of “nested” universes at different scales, ever larger and ever smaller. In this view, an individual atom might be like a real, inhabited solar system.

Scientists today reject that notion of a “Russian doll” multiverse, but they have postulated several other ways in which multiverses might exist. Here are five of them, along with a rough guide to how likely they are.

Next Page: Worlds within worlds

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Facebook uses AI to understand text-based posts

Facebook uses AI to understand text-based posts

Facebook has developed AI software to help understand what people are talking about in posts to the social network. The Deep Text engine can understand text with “near-human accuracy”, a Facebook blogpost explained.

It said the AI system was developed to help people get more out of the site and to help catch spam and other unwanted messages.
Deep Text is being tested with Facebook Messenger and to generate responses to certain search queries.

With Messenger, the system is primed to spot when people are talking about preparing to travel and this can lead to software robots – known as bots – asking if they need to call a cab.

Similarly, if someone writes that they have something to sell, Deep Text-based bots will grab information about what is being sold and its price and suggest the seller uses Facebook’s sales tools to make sure the ad reaches a wide audience.

Deep Text has emerged from work Facebook is doing on bots that can automatically help the site’s users. Future work will refine the AI engine’s ability to get at the deeper meanings of text so it can spot subtle connections between words such as “bro” and “brother” that are often missed by other language analysis tools, said Facebook.

Facebook uses AI to understand text-based posts

Rather than be directed by humans, the software has been allowed to learn about human language by itself and has built a conceptual map of how words are used and how they relate to each other.

The greater understanding of text could be useful when applied to lengthy text-based conversations that take place on Facebook to spot relevant or interesting comments. It will also be used to clean up message threads by weeding out spam or other unwanted replies.

Facebook also said it planned to use Deep Text to improve its understanding of what people like so it can refine the information and adverts they are shown.

Currently, said Facebook, Deep Text can analyse several thousand posts per second and can handle more than 20 languages.
Mike Murphy, writing on the Quartz tech news website, said there were dangers involved in mapping people’s interests ever more closely.

“As Facebook gets better at offering us personalised search results from our networks, as useful as those might be, it also keeps us in a more insular version of the web,” he wrote.

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The Maya secrets spotted from the sky

The Maya secrets spotted from the sky

Inaccessible or easily missed on the ground, ancient Maya ruins are increasingly spotted with the help of satellite imagery – but the process isn’t always fool-proof.

Some of the most magnificent Maya murals ever found – dating to 100BC – were discovered deep in the jungle of San Bartolo, Guatemala back in 2001.

It was obvious that San Bartolo had more to offer – but the jungle was thick. “It’s really dangerous walking through the jungle to find sites – it’s really humid, there are snakes,” explains Diane Davies, Honorary Research Associate at the Institute of Archaeology, UCL, who worked in the same area in the mid 2000’s.

“Honestly, you can be literally seven or eight metres away from a pyramid and in the jungle you can’t see it because [the vegetation is] so thick,” says Davies. However, through the analysis of satellite imagery, previously hidden archaeological sites can be found.

Davies recalls the assistance of Nasa scientist Thomas Sever who was later able to identify all sorts of fascinating features – including a lost Maya pyramid – from satellite images. Because many Maya buildings were constructed with limestone, the chemical composition around ruins has been altered over time – this shows up in some imagery.

The Maya secrets spotted from the sky

When scanning areas for archaeological remains, different wavelengths of the electromagnetic spectrum can be used to reveal patterns on the ground, says Geoffrey Braswell, at the University of California San Diego.

Light detection and ranging (Lidar), which uses lasers, may also be deployed to measure the topography.

“If you are flying over a canopy most of those beams going down get reflected off leaves and other things and don’t reach the ground – but some of them do,” says Braswell. “That allows us to see unique features on the ground.”

But Lidar is expensive and, for many years, was an inaccessible technology only used by the military. Braswell would love to use it to scan entire regions of Central America to see what sites archaeologists may have missed, but so far that just hasn’t been feasible.

There are other issues too. Most Maya scholars agree that sites detected by remote sensing should definitely be confirmed by expeditions on the ground.

This is because a lot of apparent discoveries often turn out to be nothing of interest – a field rather than the outline or a building, or something manmade much more recently than an ancient ruin.

“In the northern part of the Maya area in Yucatan [remote sensing] gives about 70% false positives,” says Braswell.

However, most agree that the benefits such technologies have made to archaeology are stunning. Some fabulous sites have been uncovered that could otherwise have gone unnoticed – and in some cases years have potentially been shaved off the effort to explore dense forest regions.

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A New Era of Social Networking Is Ahead

A New Era of Social Networking Is Ahead

The technological advancements in this modern generation are tremendous. Especially the software industry professionals are providing the endless solutions to every work. The work of human is greatly reduced with the help of software and it is majorly help us to accomplish our work very smartly.

This is the main reason for the success of the software industry. There are many industry-leading software companies are available all over the world. They are releasing their software products day by day to give competition to their opponents. When we compare to other fields communication area is majorly focused by them. This is due to the fact that the people are Increasingly looking for the better option for communicating with other people. That is why if you search in the Internet you can find thousands of applications for communication purposes. That may be for texting or to make voice calls or video calls etc.

Though the apps are available for this kind of communication the craze on social networks will never cease. Though many companies attempted to create social networking sites only very few of them have gained the attention of the people in this world. This is due the convenience and the flexibility of the site and its application. If the features are liked by the people then automatically it will get success easily among the people and it is started to use by them increasingly.

Till now we are using the social networks that are based on texts with the added features as photography. Now a new level of social network is going to be experience by us. We the younger generation will always look for the change in everything as we are easily bored with the same technology. To satisfy our exploring nature a new option is arriving. mango technologies is in the journey of producing a video social network.

Video social network is the next generation network that brings us to the advanced level of communication. It is going to make a revolution in the social networking system. The name of app that is going to provide such service is mimri. It is in the development phase and is getting ready to deployment. Hence promotions regarding the advent of mimri are increasingly seen in the internet. This is the new era and people are going to experience the great features if it. The techie world is eagerly waiting for the launch of mimri. Since it is totally related to the related to the video networking, the eagerness to know about the features of this new technology has trigged ripples among the people.

In order to make people to know about the launch of the application, an invite can be registered at the official website of mimri. When the app is ready an invite to download will be sent to you the email id or phone number that is provided for registration. So people can download them easily after the launch from the official website.

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How to save web pages on iPhone and Android

How to save web pages on iPhone and Android

Android and iOS are the most popular mobile operating systems in the world. Android is popular because of its flexibility. You can install and download things from wherever you want, whereas iOS is popular for its security settings and features it offers. Both of the operating systems have their advantages, but there are some similar things in both of them, too.

For example, people use their smartphone devices to watch videos, browse the Internet, chat with friends and much more. One thing which is common in between the two is the Web browsing. There are so many browsers available for them, and the majority of people often browse the Net from their mobile device. So if you came across something useful one day, and wanted to save it for further reading, then here in this post we are going to tell you about some of the working ways to save Web pages on iPhone and Android devices easily.

Using Pocket App

The pocket is one of the best services currently available to quickly save, discover, and recommend the best, most interesting stories on the Internet. The pocket is available for Android and as an extension for Chrome, which means you can also sync its data across your phone, tablet and computer. To save web pages on Android using Pocket, just install this app on your mobile and browse through the Web for your requirement.

If you found something interesting, then save it in your Pocket account and later, you can open the Pocket app to read it. The most surprising thing about Pocket app is that it offers unlimited storage to all of its users, so you can save web pages on Android without worrying about the storage. There is a Text-to-Speech feature in this app too by which you can listen to the text written on a particular page.

If you are using Google Chrome browser on Android device, then you can also use it to save web pages on your device. You don’t have to install any third party app to do it either. All you have to do is to open the webpage you want to save in Google Chrome, and then just click on the menu icon on the upper right corner side of the screen.

When you click on that button, a menu will pop up on your screen with some options in it. Just click on print button. Next, you will be taken to a new page where you can see several options. There will be a bubble with PDF written on it. Just click on it to save your web page as PDF. Next you have to choose a location where you want to save that web page. It can be your internal storage, external memory card or Google Drive.

Save Web Pages By Adding Them To Reading List

If you are using an iOS device like iPhone for browsing, and if you want to save web pages on it, then the simplest way to do that is by adding them to your reading list. Bookmarking pages can cause some problems as your data will be synced with your account, and if you lose access to the Internet, then you can’t open those bookmarks.

Instead, as I said earlier, iOS’s Reading List feature is so much helpful that you can take a snapshot of any web page and save it to your handset’s local storage for offline reading, or you can even sync your data with iCloud Storage. To save web pages in iPhone, just open the Safari browser and then open the web page you want to save. Now tap the action button (the square button with the arrow) at the bottom of the screen, then tap add to reading list.

bove mentioned methods to save web pages on Android work perfectly as we have tested them on our handsets too. Saving web pages on a mobile phone can be very helpful in many ways. For example, there are some services available to them which allow you to sync your mobile data with laptop or computer, so you can transfer them to your computer to read it on a bigger screen.

For web pages on iPhone, you can follow methods mentioned above as they are working (we have not yet tested them). If you know about any other method by which a person can easily save web pages on iPhone and Android, then do let us know about it via the comments section below.

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Byzantine Art and Architecture in Ancient Istanbul

Byzantine Art and Architecture in Ancient Istanbul

Byzantine art and architecture, works of art and structures works produced in the city of Byzantium after Constantine made it the capital of the Roman Empire (A.D. 330) and the work done under Byzantine influence, as in Venice, Ravenna, Norman Sicily, as well as in Syria, Greece, Russia, and other Eastern countries.

For more than a thousand years, until the conquest of Constantinople by the Turks in 1453, Byzantine art retained a remarkably conservative orientation; the major phases of its development emerge from a background marked by adherence to classical principles.

Artistic activity was temporarily disrupted by the Iconoclastic controversy (726–843), which resulted in the wholesale destruction of figurative works of art and the restriction of permissible content to ornamental forms or to symbols like the cross. The pillaging of Constantinople by the Frankish Crusaders in 1204 was perhaps a more serious blow; but it was followed by an impressive late flowering of Byzantine art under the Paleologus dynasty.

Byzantine Art and Architecture in Ancient Istanbul

Byzantine Art

Mosaic

Byzantine achievements in mosaic decoration brought this art to an unprecedented level of monumentality and expressive power. Mosaics were applied to the domes, half-domes, and other available surfaces of Byzantine churches in an established hierarchical order. The center of the dome was reserved for the representation of the Pantocrator, or Jesus as the ruler of the universe, whereas other sacred personages occupied lower spaces in descending order of importance.

The entire church thus served as a tangible evocation of the celestial order; this conception was further enhanced by the stylized poses and gestures of the figures, their hieratic gaze, and the luminous shimmer of the gold backgrounds. Because of the destruction of many major monuments in Constantinople proper, large ensembles of mosaic decoration have survived chiefly outside the capital, in such places as Salonica, Nicaea, and Daphni in Greece and Ravenna in Italy.

Byzantine Art and Architecture in Ancient Istanbul

Painting

An important aspect of Byzantine artistic activity was the painting of devotional panels, since the cult of icons played a leading part in both religious and secular life. Icon painting usually employed the encaustic technique. Little scope was afforded individuality; the effectiveness of the religious image as a vehicle of divine presence was held to depend on its fidelity to an established prototype. A large group of devotional images has been preserved in the monastery of St. Catherine on Mt. Sinai.

The development of Byzantine painting may also be seen in manuscript illumination. Among notable examples of Byzantine illumination are a lavishly illustrated 9th-century copy of the Homilies of Gregory Nazianzus and two works believed to date from a 10th-century revival of classicism, the Joshua Rotulus (or Roll) and the Paris Psalter.

Other Arts

Enamel, ivory, and metalwork objects of Byzantine workmanship were highly prized throughout the Middle Ages; many such works are found in the treasuries of Western churches. Most of these objects were reliquaries or devotional panels, although an important series of ivory caskets with pagan subjects has also been preserved. Byzantine silks, the manufacture of which was a state monopoly, were also eagerly sought and treasured as goods of utmost luxury.

Byzantine Art and Architecture in Ancient Istanbul

Byzantine Architecture

The architecture of the Byzantine Empire was based on the great legacy of Roman formal and technical achievements. Constantinople had been purposely founded as the Christian counterpart and successor to the leadership of the old pagan city of Rome. The new capital was in close contact with the Hellenized East, and the contribution of Eastern culture, though sometimes overstressed, was an important element in the development of its architectural style. The 5th-century basilica of St. John of the Studion, the oldest surviving church in Constantinople, is an early example of Byzantine reliance upon traditional Roman models.

The most imposing achievement of Byzantine architecture is the Church of Holy Wisdom or Hagia Sophia. It was constructed in a short span of five years (532–37) during the reign of Justinian. Hagia Sophia is without a clear antecedent in the architecture of late antiquity, yet it must be accounted as culminating several centuries of experimentation toward the realization of a unified space of monumental dimensions.

Throughout the history of Byzantine religious architecture, the centrally planned structure continued in favor. Such structures, which may show considerable variation in plan, have in common the predominance of a central domed space, flanked and partly sustained by smaller domes and half-domes spanning peripheral spaces.

Although many of the important buildings of Constantinople have been destroyed, impressive examples are still extant throughout the provinces and on the outer fringes of the empire, notably in Bulgaria, Russia, Armenia, and Sicily. A great Byzantine architectural achievement is the octagonal church of San Vitale (consecrated 547) in Ravenna. The church of St. Mark’s in Venice was based on a Byzantine prototype, and Byzantine workmen were employed by Arab rulers in the Holy Land and in Ottonian Germany during the 11th cent.

Secular architecture in the Byzantine Empire has left fewer traces. Foremost among these are the ruins of the 5th-century walls of the city of Constantinople, consisting of an outer and an inner wall, each originally studded with 96 towers. Some of these can still be seen.

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The Big Bang Blows Atheism Sky High

The Big Bang Blows Atheism Sky High: Possibly Catch Up to God’s Word

They say there are no atheists in the foxhole.

Even fewer when death is certain.

None once the final curtain falls.

God’s Word declares, “The fool hath said in his heart ‘there is no God’” (Psalm 14).

For three decades, until his death in 1953, Josef Stalin was the mass-murdering atheist dictator of Soviet Russia.

He was also a fool.

In his 1994 book, “Can Man Live Without God,” famed Christian apologist Ravi Zacharias recounts a story he heard firsthand from British Journalist Malcomb Muggeridge “that stirred [him] then and still does even yet.”

Muggeridge had collaborated with Svetlana Stalin, Josef Stalin’s daughter, on a BBC documentary about her God-hating father. She recounted his last act of defiant rebellion against the Creator: “[A]s Stalin lay dying, plagued with terrifying hallucinations, he suddenly sat halfway up in bed, clenched his fist toward the heavens once more, fell back upon his pillow, and was dead.”

“[H]is one last gesture,” observed Zacharias, “was a clenched fist toward God, his heart as cold and hard as steel.”

In my experience it is something common among atheists: an inexplicable, incongruent and visceral hatred for the very God they imagine does not exist.

Indeed, Romans 1:20 notes, “For his invisible attributes, namely, his eternal power and divine nature, have been clearly perceived, ever since the creation of the world, in the things that have been made. So they are without excuse.”

Yet excuses they make.

Psalm 19:1 likewise observes: “The heavens declare the glory of God; the skies proclaim the work of his hands.”

The manifest intentionality and fine-tuning of all creation reveals design of breathtaking complexity. The Creator is of incalculable intelligence and infinite splendor. As I see it, atheism provides a case study in willful suspension of disbelief – all to escape, as the God-denier imagines it, accountability for massaging the libertine impulse.

“Wouldn’t the atheist ‘suspend belief’?” you might ask.

No, the phrase is properly “suspension of disbelief.” It is defined as “a willingness to suspend one’s critical faculties and believe the unbelievable; sacrifice of realism and logic for the sake of enjoyment.”

In the case of the atheist, or the “freethinker,” as they paradoxically prefer, that which is unbelievable is that somehow everything came from nothing – that there is no uncaused first cause; that God does not exist, even as knowledge of His being is indelibly written on every human heart and proved by all He has made.

Be they theist, atheist or anti-theist, on this nearly all scientists agree: In the beginning there was nothing. There was no time, space or matter. There wasn’t even emptiness, only nothingness. Well, nothing natural anyway.

Then: bang! Everything. Nonexistence became existence. Nothing became, in less than an instant, our inconceivably vast and finely tuned universe governed by what mankind would later call – after we, too, popped into existence from nowhere, fully armed with conscious awareness and the ability to think, communicate and observe – “natural law” or “physics.”

Time, space, earth, life and, finally, human life were not.

And then they were.

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People likes to buy vinyl. Who listens?

People likes to buy vinyl but don't listen to them

New research suggests that streaming is boosting vinyl sales – but a lot of records being bought aren’t actually getting played.

This Saturday is the annual Record Store Day extravaganza, once again set to be marked with a slew of limited edition records, live performances and in-store events. But new research suggests that while more people, notably young people, are buying into vinyl, a lot of them aren’t actually playing the records.

An ICM poll, shared with the BBC, says 48% of people who bought vinyl last month have yet to play the record. Some 7% of those surveyed said they didn’t even own a turntable, while a further 41% said they have one but don’t use it. We humbly suggest people could rectify this situation with one of our recommended turntables.

Jordan Katende, a student, told BBC News: “I have vinyls [sic] in my room but it’s more for decor. I don’t actually play them.”

People likes to buy vinyl but don't listen to them

Meanwhile, while the record resurgence was driven by a desire to own something physical, nearly half of vinyl buyers (45%) said they had listened to the record on a streaming service before buying the physical copy, proving people still buy after they try – great news for Spotify and co.

As for where people are spending their money, despite the popularity of Record Store Day, which last year saw sales up 742% compared to the previous Saturday, only 7% of music is actually bought from a high street record shop. ICM reports 73% of music is bought online, with Amazon accounting for 27% of all music sales.

How old are vinyl buyers? The research reports around 33% of vinyl consumers fall in the 25-34 age bracket, while 22% of buyers are aged 35-44. 16% of vinyl buyers are aged 18-24. The poll also suggests – set face to ‘stunned’ – that more men than women are buying vinyl, but only just. Around 8% of men surveyed had bought vinyl in the last month, compared to around 5% of women.

In case there was any doubt, Andrew Wiseman, head of ICM Unlimited, told the BBC that vinyl remained relatively niche: “It is still the case that less than 1 in 10 people are buying vinyl, and we shouldn’t forget that it’s still a relatively small part of the market.”

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Here’s Microsoft’s new look Start menu for Windows 10

Here's Microsoft's new look Start menu for Windows 10

Microsoft has changed the look of the Start menu in Windows 10.

The revamped Start menu is due to be added to Windows 10 this summer, as part of a major update coined the ‘Windows 10 Anniversary Edition’.

Microsoft revealed the updated appearance in an early build of the OS, which it released to testers in the Windows 10 Insider program on Friday.

The new look Start menu makes the ‘All Apps’ list visible by default on the left-hand side. In another new addition, a selection of the user’s ‘Most-used’ apps are shown at the top of this permanently visible ‘All Apps’ list. Microsoft says the change should reduce the clicking and scrolling needed to access apps.

The Power, Settings and File Explorer icons are also always visible in the left rail of the Start menu and the ‘Recently added’ section will display three entries, instead of one. Any folders that users have added to the Start menu are now immediately accessible without having to click the hamburger icon.

The look of the Start menu in tablet mode has also been overhauled, turning the ‘All App’ list into a fullscreen menu, reminiscent of the Windows 8.1 Start screen. Gabe Aul, VP for Microsoft’s engineering systems team, says the switch to fullscreen was a ‘top request from Windows Insiders’, adding that ‘the grid-like implementation of the full-screen ‘All Apps’ list aims to provide efficiency while taking advantage of the additional real estate on the Start screen on a tablet’.

Here's Microsoft's new look Start menu for Windows 10

The final Start menu change is designed to make it easier to toggle between pinned tiles and the ‘All Apps’ list, by providing the option to do so in the menu’s left rail.

The latest Windows Insider build, 14328, also includes a raft of features that will be available to all users following the Anniversary Update.

These new components include Windows Ink, which allows users to more easily write notes on touchscreen PCs and tablets using a digital pen. The addition of Windows Ink to Windows 10 allows users to write on digital sticky notes, draw on digital whiteboards and annotate content in a variety of apps, including Maps, Microsoft Edge, and Office. Microsoft wants support for drawing and writing using a digital pen to be present in many Windows 10 apps and says that adding support for Windows Ink only requires developers to write two lines of code.

Windows 10’s digital assistant Cortana has also been tweaked. Users will no longer have to log into Windows to use Cortana and instead will be able to use voice commands to get Cortana to make notes, play music or set a reminder from the lock screen.

Cortana can now also be used to set photo reminders, for example the user could take a picture of a cheese they want to buy next time they’re in a store, and add reminders based on content from another Windows 10 app, for example telling a user to read an article they flagged as interesting in the Edge browser. Cortana is now also accessible to all users, with Windows 10 no longer requiring users to sign-in before they can ask simple questions of the digital assistant.

Other changes include the ability to search files on OneDrive cloud storage that aren’t synced locally, tweaks to the look of and what is displayed in the Action Center and via notifications, various changes to the Taskbar — including easier access to the calendar and the removal of the File Explorer icon, as well as updates to the Settings app and lock screen.

As this is an early build of Windows 10, some of these features may change before reaching the general public, based on feedback from testers in the Windows Insider program.

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